Chapter 4
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Tensions Increased

Series of taxes imposed

Sugar Act

Called for enforcement of customs laws in admiralty courts

Quartering Act


Colonists must provide quarters and supplies for British troops

Stamp Act


Tax stamps must be purchased and placed on all legal documents, liquor, college diplomas, newspapers, almanacs, playing cards and dice


Patrick Henry-Virginia

No taxation without representation

Stamp Act Congress-New York

9 colonies

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

No taxation without representation

Repeal of admiralty courts

Repeal of Sugar and Stamp Acts

Sons of Liberty

Mob action threatened stamp agents


Stamp Act was repealed


Declaratory Act passed at same time

Asserted Parliament’s right to "bind the colonies and the people of America in all cases whatsoever"

Quartering Act renewed

Townshend Acts

Enacted by Charles Townshend

Colonial minister

Taxes on certain imports of manufactured goods

No sense according to mercantilistic theory

Meant to teach colonists a lesson

Created Board of Customs Commissioners

Paid from fines imposed by admiralty courts



Letter by Samuel Adams and Massachusetts Assembly

Encouraged colonies to unite for common defense

Assembly dissolved

Crowds forced commissioners out of Boston

More troops called for

Competition for jobs

Boston Massacre

Crowd taunting soldiers

Crispus Attucks grabbed a soldier and through him down

Shots were fired

5 colonists dead(including Attucks), 3 wounded

More troops sent

Lord North replaced Townshend

Repealed all taxes except one on tea

Let Quartering Act expire

Relative calm from 1770-1773

Committees of Corespondence

Set up by VA and Mass. to communicate with other colonies about threats to liberties

By 1774 most colonies had one

Boston Tea Party

British gave East India Company a monopoly on the sale of tea


Colonists dressed as Indians and threw tea into Boston Harbor in protest

Intolerable Acts

Boston placed under martial law

General Thomas Gage new royal governor

Assemblies dissolved

Harbor closed

Quartering Act renewed

First Continental Congress-Philadelphia

September 1774

Denounced Intolerable Acts

Urged colonies to form militias and suspend trade with the British Empire

Agreed to meet again in May 1775

Battle at Lexington and Concord

Gage prepared to strike armory at Concord

21 miles west of Boston

Paul Revere

Warned of British coming



Minutemen and British met here 5 miles short of Concord

Someone fired a shot

Shot heard round the world

8 colonists killed

Nothing at Concord

Colonists had removed all the arms

March back to Boston

British attacked continuously on way back

Numerous British casualties

The Last Doubts Were Overcome

Second Continental Congress

Washington, Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson

Declared support for the colonials in Massachusetts

Declared that those fighting in Boston were the Army of the United Colonies

Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys

Fort Ticonderoga, New York

Washington named commander in chief of the Continental Army

Issued paper money

Named a committee to deal with foreign powers

Established a postal department


Authorized creation of navy

Battle of Bunker Hill

Breed's Hill?

American loss?

British took hill but lost 1000 men compared to American 400

9 months later Americans drove British from Boston into Canada

Olive Branch Petition

Loyalty to George III

Ministers' fault

Urged return to former harmony

Rejected by king

Ordered blockade of American coastline

Early American success


Charles Town

Thomas Paine

"Common Sense"

Attacked King George and monarchy in general

Urged independence

The Declaration of Independence

Second Continental Congress(May 1776)

Colonies advised to form new state governments

Committee chosen to write formal declaration

John Adams, Franklin, Jefferson, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston

Jefferson actual author

Attack on slave trade

Abigail Adams

Status of women



All men are created equal

Inalienable rights

List of complaints

Not approving laws passed by colonial assemblies

Dissolving assemblies that disobeyed royal governors

Not calling for elections to replace dissolved assemblies

Discouraging settlement of the west by raising land prices

Insisting that judges serve at the king’s pleasure

Leaving standing armies independent of civil authorities

Violating civil rights

Passing the Declaratory Act

Blockading coastline

Hiring foreign mercenaries to fight Americans


Adopted by Congress on July 4





Self interest

Opposition to popular rule


Law and order

Proximity of British troops

Many departed

Military Advantages and Disadvantages


Nation of 10 million backed by a worldwide empire

Largest navy in the world

Factories able to turn out weapons on a large scale

Trained and experienced soldiers and engineers

Army short of manpower

Spread all over the world

Low pay and bad living conditions

Press gangs



Hesse Cassel

3000 miles away

Unfamiliar country

Less accurate muskets


2.5 million people

20% slave

Familiar country

More accurate rifles although slow to reload and no bayonets

Lack of a sizable navy

Difficult keeping army together

Short enlistments then back to the farm

Two kinds of soldiers


From individual states

Continental Army

Served longer

Better trained

Paid by Continental Congress

Washington’s greatest achievement was keeping army together 8 years

Role of women

Took husbands’ places on farm or at trade some on battlefield

Molly Pitcher

Almost no munitions factories

Arms had to be smuggled from Europe

Poor financing

Difficulty paying and supplying troops

The War

British took New York

General William Howe and Admiral Richard Howe arrive in summer of 1776 with 32,000 men and 10,000 sailors

Washington met them with 23,000 men

By Fall 1776 Americans had been pushed out of NY, across NJ and into PA

8000 men left-the rest left captured or killed


Thomas Paine-"These are the times that try men’s souls"

Washington won in New Jersey

Christmas night 1776, Washington crosses the Delaware with 2400 men

Marched to Trenton and surprised Hessians

Killed 46, captured 900

5 casualties

Boosted morale

Camped for the winter at Morristown

British took Philadelphia

Howe let NY by sea, sailed up Delaware River and landed near Philadelphia

Washington tried to stop him but lost

Victory at Saratoga

General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne led a major army south from Canada to link up with Howe’s army at Albany

Unaware that Howe had gone to Philadelphia

Burgoyne was attacked the whole way

Too much equipment and lack of experience in the woods

Surrendered to General Horatio Gates at Saratoga in October 1777

Turning point

British now kept their men along the coastline where they had naval support

First time Americans had beaten British regulars

French support

Formal treaty signed in February 1778

Valley Forge

Winter of 77/78-out of 10,000 men 2500 died

Sir Henry Clinton replaced Howe

Spring 1778

Took the army from Philadelphia back to NY

Americans followed and camped outside NY

The South

Spring of 1779 Georgia fell into the hands of the British

Clinton and General Charles Cornwallis moved south and took SC

Clinton went back to NY and left Cornwallis to take NC

Cornwallis ran into trouble in NC against guerrilla warfare

General Nathaniel Greene was sent by Washington with 1000 men to the Carolinas

Forced Cornwallis to move north to unprotected VA

Cornwallis moved 8000 man army to Yorktown

Surrender at Yorktown

Marquis de Laffayette devised plan to move French and American troops south to Yorktown on land while the French fleet sailed north from the West Indies to block the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay from the British fleet and trap Cornwallis between land and sea

Cornwallis surrendered October 18, 1781

Results of the War

Treaty of Paris 1783

Officially ended the war and formally acknowledged American independence

Boundaries-Florida, Mississippi River, Canada

Economic life unchanged


Churches lost power

Example to the world