Chapter 5
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Articles of Confederation-1781

One state one vote

Power divided





Declare war

Make peace and sign treaties

borrow money

Set standards for coins and for weights and measures

Establish a post office

Deal with the Indians


National powers required cooperation of states

No national control over interstate trade

No control over foreign trade

No power to collect taxes

All states had to agree to any changes in the Articles

National government in general very weak

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Based on plan suggested by Jefferson

Divided land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi into territories

Territories with 5000 voting residents could elect their own government

When total population reached 60,000 they could write a constitution and become a state

Called for creation of public schools

No slavery

Indian rights-ignored

Established an orderly procedure for creating new states that lasted more than a century

Shays's Rebellion

Creditors vs. Debtors

Creditors wanted high taxes so states could pay back war debts

This sent poorer farmers into debt

Massachusetts 1786

Daniel Shays led a rebellion of about 2000 farmers

Put down by state militia but made wealthy landowners and creditors very nervous

Constitutional Convention

Leaders began to separate along state and national lines

James Madison called for a convention in Philadelphia in 1787

Philosophical principles

Man is motivated by self interest

Society consists of many different interests

Each favors his own interest over that of society

Interests balance against one another so no one becomes too powerfull


Majority rule v. Minority rights

Fear of the masses by the wealthy few

Fear of demagogue


Great or Connecticut

Virginia Plan

Lower house would be elected by voters

Upper house would be elected by the lower

Representation based on population

Both houses would vote for a national executive and judiciary

New Jersey Plan

One house

Equal representation

House would appoint executive and high court

Roger Sherman proposed two house legislature



Elected by state legislatures




Slave trade

Powers divided


Separation of Powers




Electoral College

Amending the Constitution



Federalist papers-Publius-James Madison, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton


Patrick Henry, John Hancock

Afraid of tyranny

No Bill of Rights

11 of 13 ratified, NC and RI then reconsidered and joined