Section 4
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I.      The North Takes Charge

A.                 Armies clash at Gettysburg

1.                  Prelude to Gettysburg

a)                  1863

b)                  Chancellorsville

(1)               Virginia

(2)               Southern victory

(3)               Robert E. Lee defeated Joseph Hooker

(4)               Stonewall Jackson mortally wounded by his own men

c)                  After victory Lee invades the North again

(1)               Three reasons

(a)                Needed supplies

(b)               Hoped an invasion would cause Lincoln to pull troops away from Vicksburg

(c)                Thought a major Confederate victory on Northern soil might tip the political balance of power in the Union to pro Southern Democrats

(2)               Pushed through Maryland and into Pennsylvania

2.                  Gettysburg

a)                  Three day battle in July of 1863

b)                  Turning point of the war

c)                  Crippled the South so badly that it would never again be able to invade the North

d)                  First day

(1)               Confederates under A.P. Hill clash with Union cavalry under John Buford

(2)               Both sides sent for reinforcements

(3)               Confederates took control of town

e)                  North under command of George Meade

3.                  The Second Day

a)                  Confederate General James Longstreet attacked Cemetery Ridge held by Un ion troops

b)                  Union Colonel Joshua Chamberlain successfully defended Little Round Top saving the Union line

(1)               Bayonet charge

c)                  Union lost some ground but held their line at the end of the day

4.                  The Third Day

a)                  Lee ordered artillery attack and charge against the center of the Union line

b)                  Pickettís Charge

(1)               Lost almost all his men

c)                  Attack was a disaster for the South

d)                  Three day losses were 23,000 men killed or wounded for the North and 28,000 for the South

e)                  Lee retreated but Meade did not follow him

B.                 Grant Wins at Vicksburg

1.                  Vicksburg was one of the last Confederate holdouts in the West

2.                  City fell on July 4, 1863

3.                  When Port Hudson, LA fell five days later the Confederacy was divided and the western campaign was complete

C.                 The Gettysburg Address

1.                  November 1863

2.                  Ceremony held to dedicate a cemetery at Gettysburg

3.                  Lincoln spoke for a little more than two minutes and according to historian Gary Wills remade America

a)                  Are v. Is

D.                 The Confederacy Wears Down

1.                  Confederate Morale

a)                  Food shortages

b)                  Desertion

(1)               Went home or served in Union army

c)                  Discord in Confederate government

d)                  Opposition to war growing in many Southern states

2.                  Grant Appoints Sherman

a)                  Lincoln appointed Grant as commander of all Union armies in March 1864

b)                  Grant appointed William Tecumseh Sherman as commander in the West

c)                  Total War

(1)               Fight governments and civilians as well as armies

(2)               Destroy Confederate will to fight

3.                  Grant and Lee in Virginia

a)                  Grant used superior numbers of men to defeat Lee

b)                  Fought Lee at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania , Cold Harbor , and Petersburg

c)                  Grant lost nearly 60,000 men and Lee lost 32,000

(1)               Confederates could not be replaced whereas Union soldiers could be

4.                  Sherman ís March

a)                  Marched through Georgia to Savannah destroying everything in his path

b)                  Marched north through the Carolinas to help Grant defeat Lee

5.                  The Election of 1864

a)                  Democrats nominated McClellan

(1)               Platform was immediate armistice

b)                  Radical Republicans

(1)               John Fremont

(2)               Favored harsher proposal than Lincoln for readmitting Southern states into the Union

c)                  Lincoln supporters began calling themselves the National Union Party in order to attract Democrats

(1)               Selected Andrew Johnson as running mate

(a)                Pro-Union Democrat from Tennessee

d)                  Union victories later in the year led to Lincoln victory

6.                  The Surrender at Appomattox

a)                  After Lee lost at Petersburg Davis and the Confederate government fled Richmond

b)                  Confederates burned city as they left

c)                  Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House

d)                  Terms were generous at Lincoln ís request

e)                  Within two months all remaining Confederate resistance collapsed