Chapter 6
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The New Government


The First Congress

Bill of Rights

Judiciary Act of 1789

S.C. with 1 Chief justice and 5 associate justices

16 lower courts

Prosecuting attorneys and marshals

First national census

U.S. Attorney General-Edmond Randolph


Secretary of State-Thomas Jefferson

Secretary of Treasury-Alexander Hamilton

Secretary of War-Henry Knox

Political parties


Alexander Hamilton

Powerful nation resting on balanced economy of agriculture, trade, financing, and manufacturing

Use government to help economy

Masses could not be trusted


Thomas Jefferson

Faith in the common people

Weak central government and strong state government

Individual liberties must be protected against all governments

Conflict between England and France

American neutrality


Opinion divided

Republicans supported France

Federalists supported England

Jefferson resigned in 1793

England did not accept neutrality

Seized American ships and crews

John Jay's treaty

Jay sent to England

Hamilton told British that U.S. had no intention of forming alliance with other neutral nations against Britain while Jay was threatening that it would

Jay was forced into signing treaty favorable to England in which they did not budge on the issue of shipping rights

The right of the U.S. to trade with nations at war with England

Washington's farewell address

John Adams' Presidency

Election of 1796





John Adams

Jefferson Vice President

XYZ Affair

French angry at Jayís treaty began siezing ships

Federalists want war

Adams sent 3 man negotiating team to France

Talleyrand appointed 3 low level people to meet with them

Americans dubbed them X, Y, and Z

French say no negotiations unless Talleyrand gets $240,000

Americans were irate

Navy Dept. created and for the next two years there was an undeclared naval war in the Atlantic and Caribbean

High Federalists still wanted war

Adams waited and made peace with new French government in 1799

Adams political career was ruined

Alien and Sedition Acts

Passed in 1798 they were meant to quiet criticism of Adams administration

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Election of 1800

Jefferson v. Adams

Jefferson v. Burr in the House

Peaceful transfer of power

Twelfth Amendment

Thomas Jefferson's Presidency

A Fresh Start

New party

New style

More laid back, less ceremonial

First inauguration in Washington

Cut the costs of government

Tore down Hamiltonís financial programs

Internal taxes eliminated

Influence of the Bank of the US reduced

Pardoned men convicted under the Sedition Act

James Madison was Secretary of State

Albert Gallatin was Secretary of Treasury

Marbury v. Madison

Judiciary Act of 1801

Midnight judges

Judicial Review

The Louisiana Purchase

Spain gave Napoleon Louisiana territory in 1800

Jefferson sent Monroe to try and buy New Orleans

Napoleon had lost Haiti and saw no reason to keep Louisiana, he also needed money for war with England

Sold all Louisiana territory to Americans for $15 million

Lewis and Clark

Expedition from St. Louis to the Pacific

Sacajawea-Shoshone Indian guide

2 years 4 months

Showed it was possible to travel overland to the west

Strengthened American claims to Oregon territory

Hamilton and Burr

Burr ran for governor of NY in 1804

Took aid from Federalists who wanted NY and NJ to secede

Hamilton found out and revealed it

Burr lost and challenged Hamilton to a duel

Foreign Policy

War broke out between France and England in 1803

British and French siezing American Ships



The Embargo Act of 1807

Hurt economy, very unpopular

James Madison's Presidency

Election of 1808

Charles Pinckney

Congress slowly lifted embargo

Gone by 1810

War of 1812

War Hawks

Elected in 1810

Mostly from west

Born under flag

Wanted war with Britain because of impressment

Battle of Tippecanoe


William Henry Harisson

Canadian guns

Congress declared war

US lost in early years

By 1813 American Navy was trapped in ports

British burned coastal towns


British defeated inland



Fort McHenry

Star-Spangled Banner

Francis Scott Key

Treaty of Ghent

December 1814

No land changed hands

Both sides agreed to end war

Battle of New Orleans


Andrew Jackson

Within a few years most of the disputes between Britain and US were settled

Viewed as a victory because Britain had failed

National pride surged