Chapter 9
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Manifest Destiny

God given right to expand


Hunger for land

New markets for goods and services

New immigrants created need for more living space

Desire for expansion of trade with China

Panic or depression in 1837 caused many to flee the East

Spreading democracy

Texas Became A State

Mexican independence from Spain in 1821

Land grants

To people who would settle in Texas under two conditions

Obey Mexican laws

Follow Roman Catholic Church

Stephen Austin

Led a group of settlers

Mexicans not happy

Texans not obeying rules


Texas asked to become separate state

Mexico refused

Imprisoned Austin

President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led an army of 6000 men into Texas

The Alamo


Necessary to stall Mexicans until Sam Houston could raise an army

Davy Crockett

All 187 killed

Inspiration for Texans

Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna

Texans declared independence

Mexican government refused to recognize

France and Great Britain recognized independence

Lone Star Republic

President Sam Houston

Texas became a state

Slavery issue

Great Britain's interference was alarming

1845-28th state

Mexico was furious and recalled ambassador

Election of 1844

Westward expansion was the issue

James K. Polk


For annexation of Texas and Oregon

Henry Clay


Unclear about views on expansion

Polk won

The Oregon Border Was Settled

With British

The Mexican War

American were increasingly moving to the west

Polk was determined to get New Mexico and California

Offered to buy them from Mexico

Mexico flatly refused

Still mad about Texas

Polk decided to use force

Polk baited Mexico with dispute over southern border of Texas

Rio Grande(Texas) or Nueces(Mexico) River

Zachary Taylor ordered to move troops accross Rio Grande River

Mexicans attacked

16 Americans killed or wounded

Congress declared war

Opposition to the war

Unpopular in the Northeast

Henry David Thoreau

Didnít pay poll tax

Thrown in jail

"The Duty of Civil Disobedience"

Daniel Webster

Thought Polk had forced Congress into declaring war

Americans won

Americans fired up with dreams of expansion

Volunteers from Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee

Frontier hunters crack shots

Indian fighters

Americans trained well by graduates of new Military Academy at West Point

Mexicans top heavy with generals

Ordinary soldiers not well trained

Americans had light mobile artillery

Zachary Taylor became hero

"Old Rough and Ready"

Santa Anna stepped down and new government made peace

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848


Mexico recognized Rio Grande as border with Texas

U.S. got New Mexico and California

Mexico lost about 1/3 of its territory

Mexico was paid $15 million

Election of 1848

Polk refused to run

Extension of slavery to the territories was the major issue

Lewis Cass


Avoided the issue of slavery

Martin Van Buren

Free-Soil Party

Disgusted Democrats who favored abolition

Zachary Taylor


Also avoided the issue of slavery

Taylor won

Free-Soil got 10% of vote