Chapter 1
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I.      Three Worlds Meet

A.                 Peopling the Americas

1.                  Ancient Peoples Come to America

a)                  Ice Age

(1)               22,000 years ago

(2)               Bering Strait (Beringia)

b)                  Hunting and Gathering

(1)               Nomadic

(2)               Big Game Hunters

(a)                Woolly Mammoth

(3)               Ice Age Ended 10,000 to 12,000 years ago

(a)                Travel by foot ceased

(4)               Over time they switched to smaller game, fishing and gathering

(5)               Some groups stayed in North America while others continued to move southward

(a)                Developed ways of life to suit their surroundings

c)                  Agriculture Develops

(1)               5,000 to 10,000 years ago

(2)               Central Mexico

(3)               Corn and then other crops

(4)               Eventually techniques spread throughout the Americas

(5)               Changes

(a)                Allowed groups to stay in one place

(b)               Able to develop other skills

(c)                Complex societies emerged

(6)               Some groups remained Nomadic

2.                  Complex Societies Flourish in the Americas

a)                  3,000 years ago

b)                  Diverse

c)                  Empires of Middle and South America

(1)               Olmec

(a)                1200 B.C.

(b)               Rain Forest along the Coast of the Gulf of Mexico in Southern Mexico

(c)                Thriving Civilization

(d)               Mysterious collapse around 400 B.C.

(2)               Maya

(a)                250 to 900 A.D.

(b)               Guatemala and the Yucatan Peninsula

(3)               Aztec

(a)                1200 A.D.

(b)               Valley of Mexico

(4)               Inca

(a)                1200 A.D.

(b)               2500 miles along the mountainous western coast of South America

(5)               Achievements rivaled those of other ancient cultures in other parts of the world

(a)                Great cities, ceremonial centers with huge palaces, temple-topped pyramids, and central plazas

(b)               Forms of writing to record histories

d)                  Ancient Desert Farmers

(1)               3000 years ago

(2)               North American groups introduced crops into the deserts of the southwest

(a)                Later, between 300 B.C. and 1400 A.D., they established civilizations

(b)               Hohokam

(i)                  In the valleys of the Salt and Gila rivers in what is now central Arizona

(c)                Anasazi

(i)                  Mesa tops, cliff sides, and canyon bottoms of the Four Corners region

e)                  Mound Builders

(1)               East of the Mississippi from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico

(2)               Excelled at trade and building

(3)               Huge burial mounds

(4)               Adena, Hopewell , Mississippian

B.                 North American Societies Around 1492

1.                  Native Americans Live in Diverse Societies

a)                  Environment dictated way of life

b)                  California

(1)               Kashaya Pomo

(a)                South

(b)               Hunted waterfowl with slingshots and nets

(2)               Yurok and Hupa

(a)                North

(b)               Searched the forests for acorns and fished in mountain streams

c)                  Northwest Coast

(1)               Sea was of prime importance

(a)                Collected shellfish from the beaches and hunted the ocean for whales, sea otters, and seals

(2)               Kwakiutl

(a)                Totems

(i)                  Symbols of the ancestral spirits that guided each family

(ii)                Found on masks and boats

(iii)               Poles displayed family histories

(iv)              Announced family wealth and status

(b)               Cedar plank houses

(c)                Potlatches

(i)                  Elaborate ceremonies in which families gave away large quantities of their possessions

(ii)                Family reputation depended on size

(3)               Nootka and Haida

d)                  Southwest

(1)               Descendants of the Hohokam and Anasazi

(2)               Pueblo and Hopi

(a)                By 1300 they had left the cliff houses

(b)               Pueblo built new settlements near waterways

(c)                Hopi continued to live near the cliffs and developed irrigation systems

(d)               Multistory houses made of adobe or stone

(e)                Grew corn, beans, melons and squash

(f)                 Underground kivas, or ceremonial chambers, for religious ceremonies and councils

e)                  Eastern Woodlands

(1)               Hardwood forests

(2)               Built villages in forest clearings

(3)               Blended agriculture with hunting and gathering

(4)               Traveled by foot or canoe

(5)               Woodworkers

(6)               Iroquois

(7)               Peoples differed from one another in their languages, customs, and environments

2.                  Native Americans Share Cultural Patterns

a)                  Trading Networks

(1)               One of the biggest factors in bringing peoples into contact with one another

(2)               Settlements became known for specific products or skills

(3)               Elaborate transcontinental trading network enabled one group to trade with another without direct contact

b)                  Land Use

(1)               Regarded land as a source of life and not a commodity to be sold

(2)               Attitude led to many clashes with the Europeans

(3)               Disturbed the land for only the most important activities such as food gathering or farming

c)                  Religious Beliefs

(1)               Thought of the natural world as being filled with spirits

(2)               Past generations remained alive to guide the living

(3)               Every object possessed a voice that might be heard if one listened closely

d)                  Social Organization

(1)               Bonds of kinship ensured the continuation of tribal customs

(a)                Elders taught the young and the young honored the elders and their departed ancestors

(2)               Some societies were matriarchal and some were patriarchal

(3)               Division of labor formed the basis of social order

(4)               Basic unit of organization was the family

(a)                Often extended

C.                 West African Societies Around 1492

1.                  West Africa Connects with the Wider World

a)                  The Sahara Highway

(1)               Well established trading network that connected most of West Africa to the coastal ports of North Africa , and through these ports to markets in Europe and Asia

(2)               Islam

(a)                Founded in 622 by Muhammad in Arabia

(b)               Spread by traders quickly across the Middle East and North Africa

(c)                By the 1200s it had been embraced by some West African leaders

(d)               Did not yet have much influence over the daily lives and religious practices of most West Africans in the late 1400s

b)                  The Portuguese Arrive

(1)               Peoples of Europe and West Africa had little direct contact before the 1400s

(2)               Portuguese mariners began to make trading contacts along the West African coast

(3)               Began to establish trading outposts

(4)               Two significant consequences of these early contacts

(a)                Bypassed the old trade routes across the Sahara and pulled the coastal region into a closer relationship with Europe

(b)               Began the European trade in West African slaves

(i)                  Established successful sugar plantations on two islands off the African coast in the 1480s and began to use African slave labor

(a)                Provided a model that would be reproduced on a larger scale in the Americas

2.                  Three African Kingdoms Flourish

a)                  Songhai

(1)               Located mostly in the savanna, region of dry grassland, on the edge of the Sahara

(2)               Succession of empires from 600 to 1600 gained power and wealth by controlling the trans-Sahara trade

(a)                First Ghana then Mali

(b)               Songhai began in the mid 1400s

(3)               Rulers taxed goods that passed through their realms and used their enormous wealth to

(a)                Raise large armies and conquer new territories

(b)               Build cities and administer laws

(c)                Support the arts and education

(4)               Power extended across much of West Africa but not into the belt of dense rain forest along the southern coast

(5)               Great leaders

(a)                Sunni Ali

(b)               Askia Muhammad

b)                  Benin

(1)               Located around the Niger Delta in the rain forest in the 1400s

(2)               Rain forest protected them from invasion but still allowed access for trade with Songhai and North Africa and later with Portugal

(3)               Highly organized government in which districts were governed by appointed chiefs

(4)               Master metalworkers

(5)               Great leader

(a)                Ewuare

c)                  Kongo

(1)               Located in West Central Africa on the lower Zaire ( Congo ) River in the rain forest

(2)               Series of small kingdoms ruled by a single leader called the Manikongo

(a)                Held kingdoms together by a system of royal marriages, taxes, and sometimes war and tribute

(3)               People known as Bakongo

(a)                Mined iron ore and produced well wrought tools and weapons

(4)               Portuguese struck by the similarities between Kongo and their own world

3.                  West African Culture

a)                  Family and Government

(1)               Family lineage formed the basis of most aspects of life

(2)               Within the families age carried rank

(a)                Elders represented families in meetings with other families

b)                  Religion

(1)               Important in all aspects of life

(2)               Political leaders claimed authority based on religion

(3)               Rituals were central to daily activities

(4)               Believed in many spirits  with one creator

c)                  Livelihood

(1)               Supported themselves by farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading

(2)               Believed in collective ownership of land

(3)               Along the Senegal and Gambia rivers some groups grew rice

d)                  Use of Slave Labor

(1)               People not born into it

(2)               A variety of ways to get out of it

D.                 European Societies Around 1492

1.                  The European Social Order

a)                  The Social Hierarchy

(1)               Small minority of monarchs and nobles at the top held most of the wealth and power

(2)               Majority were peasants who labored for the nobility

(3)               Very little social movement

(4)               One group that did experience social mobility was composed of artisans and merchants

b)                  The Family in Society

(1)               Extended family not as important as in Native American and African societies

(2)               Life centered around the nuclear family

2.                  Christianity Shapes the European Outlook

a)                  Roman Catholic Church was dominant

(1)               Also hierarchical

(a)                The pope and bishops determined matters of faith

(b)               Priests interacted with the people

(2)               Belief in the call to convert people of other faiths

b)                  Crusading Christianity

(1)               Spain drove the Muslims off the Iberian Peninsula by the late 1400s ending more than seven centuries of religious warfare

(a)                A united Spain stood ready to assert itself internationally and to spread Christianity around the globe 

(2)               The Crusades

(a)                A series of military expeditions to the Middle East in the name of Christianity

(b)               1096 – 1270

(c)                Christian armies from all over western Europe responded to the church’s call to force the Muslims out of the Holy Land around Jerusalem

(d)               Failed to rescue the Holy Land but had two consequences that encouraged European exploration and expansion

(i)                  Sparked an increase in trade as crusaders returned home with a new taste for products from Asia

(ii)                Weakened the power of European nobles who either died or lost their fortunes, allowing the monarchs to consolidate their own power.  Eventually monarchs sponsored overseas exploration in order to increase their wealth and power

c)                  Decline in Church Authority

(1)               A third long term consequence of the Crusades

(2)               Power struggles with European kings in the 1300s and 1400s

(3)               Reformation

(a)                Divided Christianity between Catholicism and Protestantism

(b)               Deepened rivalries between European nations and sent newly formed Protestant sects across the Atlantic to seek religious freedom

3.                  Changes Come to Europe

a)                  The Growth of Commerce and Population

(1)               Crusades opened up trade routes with Asia

(2)               Merchants got wealthy and rose in power

b)                  The Rise of Nations

(1)               Monarchs began exerting more control over their lands by collecting new taxes, raising professional armies, and strengthening central governments

(2)               Merchants paid taxes in exchange for protection or expansion of trade

(3)               Monarchs encouraged exploration in order to gain wealth to maintain their armies and bureaucracies

(4)               Portugal , Spain , France , and England

c)                  The Renaissance

(1)               Encouraged people to regard themselves as individuals, to have confidence in human capabilities, and to look forward to the fame their achievements might bring

(2)               Prompted many to seek glory through adventure, discovery, and conquest

4.                  Europe Enters a New Age of Expansion

a)                  Alternate Trade Routes to Asia Sought

b)                  Sailing Technology

(1)               Allowed ships to sail in the open seas

c)                  Portugal Takes the Lead

(1)               Prince Henry the Navigator

(a)                Established a sailing school

(b)               Sponsored the earliest voyages

(c)                West coast of Africa

(d)               In power nearly 40 years

(2)               Bartolomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of Africa in 1488

(3)               Vasco da Gama reached India ten years later

E.                  Transatlantic Encounters

1.                  Columbus Crosses the Atlantic

a)                  Italian Gets Backing from Spain

(1)               Believed there was a western route to Asia

(2)               Isabella of Spain agreed to sponsor him

(3)               Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria

(4)               Left from Spain on August 3, 1492

b)                  First Encounters

(1)               Land spotted from the Pinta on October 12, 1492

(2)               Encountered the Taino (“noble ones”)

(3)               Renamed the island San Salvador or “Holy Savior” and claimed it for Spain

c)                  Gold, Land, and Religion

(1)               Search for gold was one of the main reasons for the voyage

(2)               When gold was not found in San Salvador , Columbus sailed all around the Caribbean looking for it, claiming all of the islands for Spain and giving them Spanish names

(3)               Planted a cross on all lands he discovered and promised to assert Christian domination

d)                  Spanish Footholds

(1)               Columbus returned to Spain and reported that he had reached the islands off Asia known as the Indies

(a)                Named the people Indians

(2)               Spain funded three more voyages

(3)               Colonized lands they found

2.                  The Impact on Native Americans

a)                  Methods of Colonization

(1)               Plantation System

(2)               Use of Forced Labor

(3)               Use of European weapons to dominate a people with less sophisticated weaponry

b)                  Resistance and Conquest

(1)               Some groups resisted but were quickly crushed

c)                  Disease Ravages the Native Americans

(1)               Lacked immunity to European diseases and hundreds of thousands of them died

3.                  The Slave Trade Begins

a)                  A New Slave Labor Force

(1)               Disease created a labor shortage

(2)               Africans seen as superior laborers

(3)               African slavery became an essential part of the European-American economic system

b)                  African Losses

(1)               Devastated many African societies

(2)               Ultimately drained Africa of at least 12 million people

4.                  The Impact on Europeans

a)                  The Columbian Exchange

(1)               Global transfer of living things between Europe , Africa , and the Americas

(2)               Continues today

b)                  National Rivalries

(1)               Portugal resented Spain ’s sudden conquests

(2)               Treaty of Tordesillas

(a)                Negotiated by the Pope

(b)               Divided New World between Spain and Portugal

(c)                Impossible to enforce

(d)               Only lasting effect was to give Portugal Brazil

5.                  A New Society is Born

a)                  Story of the United States begins with a meeting of North American, African, and European peoples and cultures that radically transformed all three worlds