Chapter 11
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Section 4

The Civil War

Lincoln took office

Confederates took Fort Sumter

Lincoln asked for volunteers for the Union Army

Virginia seceded

Capitol moved to Richmond

Western part of the state remained in the Union

Became the state of West Virginia

Three more states seceded

Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina

Border states remained in the Union

Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, and Delaware

All slave states

Northern Advantages

Larger population

More men of fighting age

Superior manufacturing and food production

2/3 of the country's railroad mileage

Superior civilian leadership

Southern Advantages

Defending their own soil

Better military leadership

More used to guns and horses


The First Battle of Bull Run

First battle of the war

Attempt to capture Richmond

Union met with resistance at Bull Run Creek

Union had initial advantage

Confederate reinforcements led by Thomas Jackson turned the tide and defeated the Union Army and forced it to retreat back to Washington

Gained the nickname Stonewall

Modern warfare

Breech-loading rifles




Three-pronged Union strategy

Campaign to take Richmond

After Bull Run Lincoln put George McClellan in charge

Very cautious man

Replaced Winfield Scott

Western Campaign

Led by Ulysses S. Grant

Meant to split Confederate forces

Very successful at first

Battle of Shiloh


Union army surprised by Confederates

Fighting went on all day then more Union troops arrived and the Confederates were driven from the field

More than 13,000 Union troops killed or wounded

More than 10,000 Confederates killed or wounded

Failure to hold Union army meant they would still be able to advance and this part of the strategy would succeed

Blockade of the Confederate coastline

Cut off commercial lifeline with Europe

Blockade running not enough to make up for regular trade

Attacked port cities

David Farragut took New Orleans and began to advance north to meet Grant

The Second Battle of Bull Run

Summer of 1862

McClellan after many battles was unable to take Richmond

McClellan pulled back

Robert E. Lee went on the attack and beat McClellan at Bull Run

Union army no closer to Richmond than at the beginning of the war


After victory Lee began to push into Union territory

McClellan pursued him but was unable to catch him until Leeís orders were found wrapping a bunch of cigars

McClellan caught Lee at Antietam Creek in Maryland and a great battle took place

Lee was outnumbered 70,000 to 40,000

More than 22,000 dead or wounded

About even on both sides

McClellan failed to finish Lee off

Lee retreated to VA

Lincoln fired McClellan

Slavery became the main issue

At first neither side declared slavery to be the central issue


Preservation of the Union


States Rights

Lincoln did not think the North would support a war over slavery

Three things changed his mind

Bloody fighting made the North want to hurt the South as much as possible

Ending slavery would do that

Slavery helped the southern war effort

Slavery was a crucial issue with Britain

Britain would not support a war to preserve the Union but would to end slavery

Britain was torn on whether or not to support the Confederacy

Liked the Union splitting up but did not support slavery

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1, 1863

Freed slaves in states in rebellion against the United States

Did not apply to border states

British opinion supported the Union

Encouraged the recruitment of blacks in the Union army

Nearly 300,000 served

Both sides adopted the draft

Life behind the lines

South suffered shortages

North prospered

Congressional actions

Morrill Tariff of 1861

Raised tax to 25%

By 1864 it was 47%

Transcontinental railroad

Homestead Act


160 acres of public land given to anyone who would occupy and cultivate it

Morrill Land-Grant Act


Gave land to states and territories to build colleges that would teach agricultural and mechanical skills

National Banking Act


Did away with state banks and set up a system of national banks

Created a uniform currency


Began taking menís jobs


Dorothea Dix

Superintendent of nurses in the North

Many people had doubts about women working in army hospitals

Prisons were terrible

Lincoln replaced McClellan with Ambrose Burnside

Lost at Fredericksburg and was replaced by Fighting Joe Hooker

Battle of Chancellorsville

Hooker lost badly

Lincoln replaced Hooker with George Meade

Stonewall Jackson was fatally wounded

Battle of Gettysburg

Lee marched north

Meade followed and met him at Gettysburg

Three days of very brutal fighting

Many casualties

Lee-28,000 out of 75,000

Meade-23,000 out of 88,000

Meade did not finish Lee off and let him retreat south

Gettysburg Address

November 1863

Battle of Vicksburg

Grant victorious

Completed the western campaign

Lincoln made Grant the supreme commander of the Union Army

William T. Sherman took charge of the army in the west and Grant took over the eastern campaign

Decided to wear Lee down with superior numbers

Election of 1864

Lincoln beat McClellan due to recent military successes

Grant took Richmond

Confederates burned it

Lee retreated west

Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox

The war was over

Lincoln was shot and killed five days later by John Wilkes Booth