Chapter 7
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The Era of Good Feelings

Time of cooperation growth and nationalism(1817-1822)

Disappearance of two party system

James Monroe(1817-1824)

The American System

Nationwide economic cooperation between industrial north and agricultural south and west

Henry Clay

Three things necessary

Protective tariffs

Tariff Act of 1816

Protected northern businesses


National Road from Maryland to Illinois


Second Bank of the United States


25 branches all over the country

Issued paper money

Controlled money supply

National power increased by the Supreme Court

John Marshall

McCulloch v. Maryland

Federal supremacy over state law

Gibbons v. Ogden

Interstate commerce

Adams-Onis Treaty


Between Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish minister Luis de Onis

Spain gave Florida to the U.S.

Missouri Compromise




Line drawn

Monroe Doctrine


Warning to European powers not to interfere with affairs in the western hemisphere

U.S. would not interfere in European affairs or with existing colonies in western hemisphere

Result of European countries trying to regain colonies after the fall of Napoleon in 1815






King Cotton


Eli Whitney

Cotton gin

Industrial Revolution


Eli Whitney

Interchangeable part

Political Parties Developed Again

Election of 1824

John Quincy Adams

William Crawford

Had a stroke

Henry Clay

Came in last

Andrew Jackson

Jackson won but not with majority

House of Representatives chose Adams

Clay, Speaker of the House, chosen as Secretary of State

Jackson followers outraged

Suspected a deal

Adams and Jefferson died on the same day

July 4, 1826

50 years after signing of Declaration of Independence

Adams presidency

Strong national government

National University

Scientific expeditions

Literature and the arts

Very unpopular

Democratic Party formed

Martin Van Buren

Political machine in New York


Wanted to unite planters in the South and workers in the North

Wanted Jackson to be president

Election of 1828

Adams-National Republican

Jackson-Democratic Republican

Jackson won and became a Democrat

Andrew Jackson's Presidency


From the west

From a poor family

No college education

Kitchen Cabinet

Martin Van Buren-Secretary of State

Spoils system

Alliance with Catholics

Use of the veto

Pork-barrel legislation

Indian policy




Indian Removal Act(1830)

Federal government provided funds to make treaties to force the Indians west

Some resisted

Black Hawk


Cherokees in Georgia

Had assimilated

1827-wanted to form their own state in Georgia

Georgia refused

Worcester v. Georgia

Court ruled in favor of Indians

Jackson refused to enforce ruling

Trail of Tears


Cherokees forced west to Oklahoma


800 miles

More than 1/4 died on the way

First nominating convention

Democratic Party(1832)

Martin Van Buren-Vice President

States' Rights

Tariff of Abominations

South opposed because Britain had less money to by cotton and could not sell the South cheap manufactured goods

Northern business liked it

John C. Calhoun's Nullification Theory

V.P. under Adams and Jackson


VA and Kentucky Resolutions

States determine constitutionality of acts of Congress


Daniel Webster's response

Great speaker


Union is more than a compact between states

National government supreme

Disputes settled by courts

Jackson sided with Webster

Jackson dropped Calhoun from 1832 ticket

South Carolina threatened to secede

Congress passed the Force Bill


Federal troops would be used to keep SC from seceding

Henry Clay's Compromise

Tariff lowered gradually over 10 years

SC backed down but nullified Force Bill

The Second Bank of the United States

Reasons for opposition to the bank

Symbolized Eastern wealth and power

Threat to democracy because of its power

State banks disliked competition

Farmers distrusted paper money

Had a monopoly on government business

Profits went to wealthy stockholders rather than taxpayers

Nicholas Biddle, the president of the bank was widely disliked

Election of 1832

Bank was the main issue

Andrew Jackson

Replaced Calhoun with Martin Van Buren

Henry Clay

Received $100,000 donation from the bank

Jackson won easily

Jackson withdrew all government deposits out of the bank and deposited them in state banks

Biddle called in all loans


Biddle's plan backfired

People blamed him not Jackson

Bank expired in 1836

Results of the crisis

New York became financial capital

Picked up fallout from loss of National Bank

Whig Party formed


Anti Jackson

Jackson's Successors

Continued his policies

Election of 1836

Martin Van Buren


William Henry Harrison and Daniel Webster

Whigs ran both in hopes of splitting electoral vote

Van Buren won

Depression hit in 1837

Void created by loss of national bank

Wildcat banks

World economy

Van Buren blamed

Election of 1840

Van Buren

William Henry Harrison


Big campaign

Common man

Tippecanoe and Tyler Too

Harrison won

Harrison died of pneumonia one month after inauguration

John Tyler became president

Conflict with Clay and other Whigs

States' Rights over the American System

Use of the veto against internal improvements and a new national bank

Legislation came to a standstill

Entire Cabinet except Webster resigned

Jackson' Legacy

Strengthened presidency

New party era